A Contribution of ICAR National Fellow Project

A Web-portal exclusively on Termite R&D Crossed One Million Mark Covering 81 Countries Across the WorldITMM in IYoM 2023: Integrated Termite Management in Millets


Indian Termite (Insecta: Isoptera) Fauna 

Species of termites in India is updated to 261. The greatest contribution on Indian region termites was made by Roonwal and Chhotani (1989) and Chhotani (1997) in “Fauna of India and Adjacent Countries Isoptera (Termites)”.They recorded 337 species of termites belonging to seven families and 59 genera from the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). However, no comprehensive list exists for India till-date. Thus, an updated list is prepared that serve the most up-to-date taxonomic treatment of order Isoptera; along with molecular characterization of few termite species as available on date in Indian context. The updated list covers 7 families, one genera each under families Termopsidae, Hodotermitidae, Stylotermitidae, Indotermitidae; and 7 genera in Rhinotermitidae; 8 genera in Kalotermitidae. The largest family is Termitidae comprising 32 genera and 188 species. Only 14 termite species were characterised in molecular way, and hope, in future more number of termites will be added. Fortunately, no termite species from this list is neither under Threatened Species nor the Critically Endangered Species as per IUCN’s Red Data Book. 

Insects are the most diverse of all animal groups, and the taxon insecta comprises of 30 orders, Isoptera being one that deals with termites. Scientist estimate 10% of the animal biomass of the world is termites (
And over 3106 (living and fossil) species now documented in the Treaties on the Isoptera of the World(Krishna et al. 2013). In Indian subcontinent, it is expected that final number exceeds 350 species. However, for Indian sovereign no such checklist is cited anywhere by anyone. The purpose of this termite updated list is to assist the terminologists/entomologists in preparing accounts for groups for which they are experts. Hope this serves as a valuable/useful tool to consolidated Indian knowledge level, and at the same time reveals taxonomic areas needing further investigation. The exhaustive list enlists 261 termite species in total (Table 1). The list is appended with a short account on the genes sequenced for molecular characterization and identification in the Indian context. In essence, we assume molecular identification will supplement the morpho-taxonomy, even if not substituting the role of traditional termite taxonomy.
In recent years science has witnessed an inevitable evolution from print to electronic media in the production of taxonomic resources. This is fostered by a large number of initiatives like the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, http://www.gbif.org/), the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS, http://www.itis.usda.gov/), Species2000 (http://www.sp2000.org), and Universal Biological Indexer and Organizer (uBIO: http://www.ubio.org), to name a few. Even long-established resources like the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999; http://www.iczn.org/) are turning towards the World Wide Web, (e.g., with the Zoo Bank initiative: http://www.zoobank.org) notwithstanding. 

Materials and Methods
We carefully output information directly from the two volumes of “Fauna of India and Adjacent Countries Isoptera (Termites)”, and also based on our cumulative knowledge. Few termite species were collected under the National Fellow ICAR project (2011-2016), and inventory is prepared at Division of Entomology, IARI. Termite samples were preserved in 80% ethyl-alcohol and studied under stereoscopic binocular microscope. Termites were identified using external morphology of the soldier caste (Roonwal 1970a).The important characteristics used for identification were - shape and size of the head, labrum, mandibles, pronotum, postmentum and position of the tooth and antennal segments etc. Determination of species was based on the keys (Roonwal and Chhotani 1989, Chhotani 1997 and Thakur 1981).
Taxonomic Research in India

M L Roonwal (1908-1990) started the work on Indian termites in a systematic and detailed manner in 1950-1951 at Forest Entomology Branch, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. During 1951-80, termite research in India was at its peak at FRI, Dehradun, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata and Zoological Survey of India, Jodhpur. A large number of research papers and monographs were published describing the termite fauna at the regional level. Significant contributions were made by Ahmad (1958 & a), Bose (1975, 1980, 1984, 1992, 1999), Chhotani (1971, 1975, 1976, 1977& a, 1987, 1992), Chatterjee & Thakur (1963, 1964, a & b, 1965, 1966, a &b, 1967, 1968, 1969), Krishna (1965), Kumar (2010 & a, 2011), Kumar & Thakur (2010, a, 2011, a, 2012, 2013), Lahiri & Ghosh (1980), Lahiri et al. (1977), Mahapatro & Kumar (2013), Maiti (1977, 1979, 1983), Mathur & Sen-Sarma (1959, 1961), Mathur & Thapa (1962 & a), Parihar (1977), Prasad & Sen-Sarma(1959, 1960, 1966 &a ), Prasad et al. (1967, 1970),Rathore (1986, 1987 & a , 1989, 1994&a, 1995, 1996, 1998 &a, 1999, 2005), Rathore & Bhattacharya (2004 &a), Rathore & Mandal (2005, 2006), Roonwal (1962 &a, 1964, 1970, a &b, 1972, a&b,1974, 1975, a, b, c& d,1976, 1977, a &b, 1978, a &b, 1979& a,1982 &a), Roonwal & Bose (1960, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1969, 1970, 1978, 1988), Roonwal & Chhotani (1960 &a , 1962, 1965, 1966, 1971,1977, 1986, 1989), Roonwal & Sen-Sarma (1960, 1973), Roonwal & Verma (1976 & a, 1973, 1976, 1977& a,1991), Sen-Sarma (1965, 1966), Sen-Sarma& Thakur (1979, 1980), Sen-Sarma & Verma (1983), Thakur (1975, 1976, a, b & c, 1978 &a,1981 &a), Thakur and Chatterjee (1969, 1970, 1971, 1974), Thakur & Sen-Sarma (1973, 1979), Thakur (1984, 1987,1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1994,  2007 & a, 2008, 2009 & a), Thakur & Rathore (1986), Thakur & Kumar (2012), Thakur, et al.  (2009, 2010, a, 2011), Verma (1969, 1980, 1983, 1984,a &b, 1985&a, 1989), Verma &Purohit (1996), Verma & Rathore (1995), Verma & Thakur (1976, 1978, 1979), etc. contributed to the termites research in  India. The greatest contribution on Indian region termites was made by Roonwal and Chhotani(1989) (Vol-I) and Chhotani(1997) (Vol-II) in the form of two volumes on Fauna of India and Adjacent Countries Isoptera (Termites)”reported 337 species of termites belonging to seven families and 59 genera from the Indian region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka).
A monumental work (included the new taxa described till 2010 first half) on world termite fauna recently published by Krishna et al. (2013).But we are trying to provide the latest information on new and already described species only from India till March, 2014.
Termites from India were reported first time by Linnaeus (1758) himself in his Systema Naturae (10th ed.), then onwards many termites were added to the list from Indian region, swelled to 1773 species (by Snyder, 1949). Work on termites initiated systematically in FRI since 1950-51, many Indian stalwarts contributed significantly to termite taxonomy earning worldwide recognitions like Roonwal, Chottani, Bose, Maiti, Verma, Thakur etc. Notably now, Krishna Kumar’s encyclopaedic knowledge makes him the world authority and dean of Isoptera research (principal author of the magnum opus, Treatise on the Isoptera of the World). Such classics of taxonomy in Indian context are worth citing, as well worth encouraging for termite taxonomists. Our list is a small contribution in this line. So as on today only Indian termite fauna comprises 261 species fall under seven families and 51 genera (Table 1).Fortunately, no termite species from this list is neither under Threatened Species nor the Critically Endangered Species as per IUCN’s Red Data Book.

Supporting Literature 

Ahmad, M. (1958).Key to Indomalayan termites.(Part 1.). Biologia 4(1): 33-118.

Ahmad, M. (1958a). Key to Indomalayan termites. Biologia 4(2):119-198.

Bose, G. (1975). Two new species of Odontotermes (Isoptera: Termitidae) from Southern India. Oriental Insects 9(2): 157-164.

Bose, G. (1980). A further contribution to the study of termite fauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.Records zoological Survey of India 77: 93-109.

Bose, G. (1984). Termite fauna of Southern India.Occasional Paper zoological Survey of India 49: 1- 270.

Bose, G. (1992). An unusual case of mound construction by the termite Odontotermes feae (Wasmann). Record of the Zoological Survey of India 92: 19-22.

Bose, G. (1997). Termite fauna of North Eastern India.Occasional Paper zoological Survey of India 171: 1-148. 

Bose, G & B.C. Das (1982).Termite fauna of Orissa, eastern India. Records of the zoological Survey of India 80(1-2): 197-213.

Brauer, F. (1866).Reise der osterreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erd in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Befehlm des Comodore B. von Wullerstorf-Urbair, Zoologischer Theil. Band 2.Neuropter, 1-104 pp.

Bugnion, E. (1912). Eutermes lacustris nov. sp. de Ceylan. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 20(8): 487- 505.

Bugnion, E. (1914). Eutermes kotuae nov. sp. De Ceylon. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique Suisse 12: 193-200.

Bugnion, E. (1914a). L’imago de L’Eutermes lacustris de Ceylon. Spolia Zeylanica 9(35): 155-162.

Bugnion, E. & C. Ferriere (1911). L’imago du Coptotermes flavus.Larvae portant des rudiments d’ ailes prothoraciques. Memories de la Societe Zoologique de France 24(7): 97-106.

Bugnion, E. & N. Popoff (1910). Le termite a latex de Ceylon (Coptotermes travians Haviland). Avec un appendice comprenant la description des Coptotermes Gestroi Wasm. et flavus nov. sp. Memories de la Societe Zoologique de France 23(8): 107-123.

Bugnion, E. & N. Popoff (1910a). Les Calotermes de Ceylon. Memories de la Societe Zoologique de France 23(9): 124-144.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1963).Revision of the termite genus Hypotermes Holmgren.(Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) from the Indo-Malayan Region. Indian Forest Records, Entomology 10(9): 171-203.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1964). A new species of Angulitermes from North India (Isoptera: Termitidae: Termitinae). Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 61(2): 348-353.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1964a).Contributions to the knowledge of the systematic of Himalayan (North-western) termite fauna-II. Description of Microcerotermes rambanensis sp. Nov. (Isoptera: Termitidae: Amitermitinae) from Kashmir. Bulletion of Entomology 5: 1-6.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1964b). Revesion of the termite genus Microtermes Wasmann (Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae). Indian Forest Records (New Series) Entomology 10(11): 219-260.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1965). Doonitermes capillosus .sp. nov. from Doon Valley (Uttar Pradesh, India) (Isoptera: Termitidae: Amitermitinae). Science and Culture 31(2): 646-649.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1966).Biology and ecology of Oriental termites and biology of some termites of the Doon Valley. Indian Forester 92(2): 139-142.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1966a).Description of the hitherto unknown imago caste of Euhamitermes lighti Snyder with description of other castes. Indian Forest Bulletin (New Series) Entomology 256: 1-11.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1966b). Doonitermes capillosus gen. et sp. nov. from Doon Valley (Uttar Pradesh, India) (Isoptera: Termitidae: Amitermitinae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 176(5): 349-357.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1967). Contributions to the knowledge of systematic of North-Western Himalayan termite fauna (Isoptera: Insecta), III. Systematic account of the survey. Indian Forest Records (New Series) Entomology 11: 1-55.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1968).On a collection of termites from Daman. Indian Forester 94(7): 560-567. 

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1969). A new species of Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae) from Doon Valley, India. Bulletin of Systematic Zoology 1(2): 57-65. 

Chhotani, O.B. (1997). The Fauna of India and the adjacent countries, Isoptera (Termites).Zoological  Survey of India, Kolkata, xx+800 pp.

Chhotani, O.B. (1970). Taxonomy, zoogeography and phylogeny of the genus Cryptotermes (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) from the Oriental region. Memoirs of the zoological Survey of India 15(1): 1-81. 

Chhotani, O.B. (1971). The imago of the termite Nasutitermes indicola (Isoptera: Termitidae), and nesting habit of the species. Records of the zoological Survey of India 63(1-4): 223-229. 

Chhotani, O.B. (1975). Revision of the genus Glyptotermes Froggatt (Kalotermitidae, Isoptera, Insecta) from the Indian region. Records of the zoological Survey of India 60(1-4): 109-159. 

Chhotani, O.B. (1976). Report on a collection of termites from Tripura, eastern India. Newsletter zoological Survey of India 2(1): 12-13.

Chhotani, O.B. (1977). Termites of Kanha National Park (Madhya Pradesh), India. Records of the zoological Survey of India 72: 367-388. 

Chhotani, O.B. (1977a). A review of taxonomy of Indian termites.Occasional Paper of the zoological Survey of India 9: 4-36.

Chhotani, O.B. (1987). Distribution and zoogeography of Oriental Termitidae.Beiträge zur Entomologie37: 407-420.

Chhotani, O.B. (1992). On the species Capritermes fletcheri Holmgren and Holmgren and Eutermes incola Wasmann (Isoptera: Termitidae: Termitinae): Their Status, description, etc. Records of the zoological Survey of India 92: 293-310. 

Chhotani, O.B. & G. Bose (1985). Fauna of Namdapha: Aranachal Pradesh a proposed biosphere reserve (Insecta: Isoptera). Records of the zoological Survey of India 82(1-4): 53-60. 

Desneux, J. (1904). A propos de la phylogenie des Termitides.Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique 48(8): 278-286.

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Holmgren, K. & N. Holmgren (1917). Report on a collection of termites from India. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India 5(3): 137-171. 

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Krishna, K. (1965). A new species of termite from the Nicobar Islands, (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).Entomology Meddelelser 34: 107-109.

Krishna, K., G.A. David, V. Krishna, & M.S. Engel (2013).“Treatise on the Isoptera of the World. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 7: 2706pp.

Kumar S. (2010). Study of termite fauna of Haryana under different eco-climatic zones.Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Entomology, Forest Research Institute University, vii+198pp.

Kumar, S. & R.K. Thakur (2010).A new species of Angulitermes from North India (Isoptera: Termitidae: Termitinae). Journal of Experimental Zoology 13(2): 495-498.

Kumar, S. &R.K. Thakur (2010a). A check list of Termites (Insecta: Isoptera) from Haryana Agricultural University Campus, Hisar, Haryana. Journal of Experimental Zoology 13(2): 523-526.

Kumar, S. & R.K. Thakur (2011).Pericapritermes vermai, a new species from India (Oriental Region) (Isoptera: Termitidae). Journal of Experimental Zoology 14(1): 345-348.

Kumar, S. (2011a). An addition to the Thar Desert Termites (Insecta: Isoptera). Indian Forester 137(3): 387-390.

Kumar, S. & R.K. Thakur (2012).Termite in the office and residential buildings in new Forest Campus, Dehradun.Journal of Experimental Zoology15(2): 579-582.

Kumar, S. & R.K. Thakur (2013). Termites (Insecta: Isoptera) from Punjab with new distributional records. Indian Forester 139 (6): 553-558.

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Lahiri, A.R. & A.K. Ghosh (1980). Termites of Manipur, India, with new records (Insecta: Isoptera). Records of the zoological Survey of India 76: 65-70. 

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Mahapatro, G.K. & S. Kumar (2013). Termites of Delhi: diversity and pest status. Indian Forester 139 (12): 1151-1153.

Mahapatro, G.K. & S. Kumar (2013).First report of a commonly prevalent termite Heterotermes indicola from Delhi region. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 83(4): 459–462.

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Maiti, P.K. (1979). The composition and geographical origin of the termites (Isoptera) of the Great Nicobar Island, Indian Ocean. Proceeding of the zoological Society 30(1-2): 131-135. 

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Roonwal, M.L. & G. Bose (1964).Termite fauna of Rajasthan, India. Zoologia 40(3): 6-58. 

Roonwal, M.L. & G. Bose (1965).Zoogeography of Andaman and Nicobar termites.Bulletin of Systematic Zoology 1(1): 3-4. 

Roonwal, M.L. & G. Bose (1969).Fauna of Rajasthan, India.Part 4. A check-list of Rajasthan termites (Insecta: Isoptera). Records zoological Survey of India 61(3-4): 437-450.

Roonwal, M.L. & G. Bose (1970).Taxonomy and zoogeography of the termite fauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indian Ocean. Records of the zoological Survey of India 62(3-4): 109-170. 

Roonwal, M.L. & G. Bose (1978).Vagitational distribution of termites of Rajasthan (India) and their economic importance.Proceeding Indian national Science Academy (B) 44(5): 320-329.

Roonwal, M.L. & G. Bose (1988).The harvester termite (Anacanthotermes) of the Indian Region. Identity, distribution and biology (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae). Occasional Paper Records of zoological Survey of India 111: 1-61.

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1960).The apical tibial spur formula in the termite genus Coptotermes. Journal of the zoological Society of India 11(2): 125-132. 

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1960a). Soldier caste found in the termite genus Speculitermes. Science and Culture 26(3): 143-144. 

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1962).Termite fauna of Assam, Eastern India. Proceeding of the Indian National Science Academy (B) 28(4): 281-406. 

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1965). Two new species of Euhamitermes Holmgren (Insecta: Isoptera: Termitidae) from India. Proceeding zoological Society Calcutta 18(1): 11-19.

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1966). Revision of termite genus Eurytermes (Termitidae: Amitermitinae). Proceeding of the Indian National Science Academy (B) 31(3-4): 81-113. 

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1971). Two new termites of genus Angultermes Sjostedt (Isoptera: Termitidae) from India, with a key to species of Indian Region. Records of the zoological Survey of India 63(1-4): 209-222.

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1977).Ergebnisse der Bhutan-Expedition 1972 des Naturhistorischen Museums Basel.Isoptera (termites). Entomologica Basiliensia 2: 39-84. 

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1986).The identity of South Asian termites Indotermes rongrensis (R. and C.) (Synonyms Speculitermes Cyclops rongrensis and I. bangladeshiensis) (Isoptera, Indotermitidae). Records of the zoological Survey of India 83(3-4): 155-163. 

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1989).The Fauna of India and the adjacent countries, Isoptera (Termites).Zoological  Survey of India, Kolkata, viii+672pp.

Roonwal, M.L. & P.K. Sen-Sarma (1960).Contribution to the systematic of Oriental termites.Indian Council of Agriculture Research, New Delhi, 407pp. 

Roonwal, M.L. & P.K. Sen-Sarma (1973).First record of termite genus Incisitermes Krishna (Kalotermitidae) from Indian Region, with description of a new species from Rajasthan.Zoologischer Anzeiger 191(5-6): 390-397.

Roonwal, M.L. &S.C. Verma (1973).Broad-postmentum latigula –group species of termite genus Odontotermes (Termitidae), from the Orient with a new Indian species.Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science 4(2): 88-91.

Roonwal, M.L. &S.C. Verma (1976).  Resurvey of the termite fauna of Rajasthan, India, and its Zoogeography. Records zoological Survey of India 72: 425-480.

Roonwal, M.L. &S.C. Verma (1977).A new species of Angulitermes (Isoptera, Termitidae, Termitinae) from the Indian Desert, with some observations on its biology.Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 112: 5-12. 

Roonwal, M.L. &S.C. Verma (1977a). Resurvey of the termite fauna of Rajasthan, India, and its Zoogeography. Records of the zoological Survey of India 72: 425-480. 

Roonwal, M.L. & S.C. Verma (1991). The South Asian wood destroying termite, Odontotermes feae. Identity, biology and economic importance (Termitidae: Macrotermitinae). Occasional Paper Records of zoological Survey of India 129: 1-33.

Singla M., V.L. Sharma, R.C. Sobti, M. Sodhi& M. Kumari (2013). Genetic Relationship Among Indian Termites Based on DNA Sequence of Mitochondrial 12S Ribosomal RNA Gene. International Journal of Evolution 2(1):1-5.

Sobti R.C., M. Kumari, V.L. Sharma, M. Sodhi, M. Mukesh& Y. Shouche (2009). Sequence analysis of a few species of termites (order: Isoptera) on the basis of partial characterization of COII gene. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 331(1–2): 145-151

Sen-Sarma, P.K. (1965). A new termite genus and species from south India (Insecta: Isoptera: Termitidae). Proceedings zoological Society Calcutta 18: 143-148.

Sen-Sarma, P.K. (1966). Three new genera of Grallatotermes complex (Isoptera: Termitidae: Nasutitemitinae). Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 63(1): 167-184.


Sen-Sarma, P.K. & M.L. Thakur (1979). Termites of Tripura (Insecta: Isoptera). Indian Forest Records (New Series) Entomology 13(1): 1-67.

Thakur, R.K. (1989). Termite fauna (Insecta: Isoptera) of Gujarat, India. Indian Forest Records (New Series) Entomology 15(1): 1-76. 

Thakur, R.K. (1990). Termites (Isoptera) from Karnataka (South India), with new records. Indian Journal of Forestry 13(1): 53-56.

Thakur, R.K. (1991). First record of Hypotermes xenotermitis Wasmann.(Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) from South India.Indian Journal of Forestry 14(4): 318-319.

Thakur, R.K. (1992). Termites from arid areas of Punjab and Haryana, India.Records zoological Survey of India 91(2): 127-137.

Thakur, R.K. (1994). On a collection of termites from arid areas of Punjab and Haryana.Records of the zoological Survey of India 91: 125-127. 

Thakur, R.K. (2007). Termites (Insecta: Isoptera) from Haryana with new distributional records. Indian Forester 133(11): 1504-1512.

Thakur, R.K. (2007a). Termites from Delhi (Insecta: Isoptera), with new distributional records. Indian Journal of Forestry 30(4): 505-508.

Thakur, R.K. (2008). Angulitermes bhagsunagensis, a new species from India (Oriental region) (Isoptera: Termitidae: Termitinae). Indian Journal of Forestry 31(4): 581-584.

Thakur, R.K. (2009). Studies on the termite fauna of Northern India (Insecta: Isoptera). Final Technical Report.Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun, India, 120pp.

Thakur, R.K. (2009a). Termite Research in Forestry in India: Past and Present. ENVIS, Forestry Bulletin 9(1): 19-32.

Thakur R.K. (2010). Studies on the termites of family Termitidae (Insecta: Isoptera), with special emphasis on their taxonomic status, identity and distribution. Final Technical Report, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun, India, 266pp

Thakur, R.K. & N.S. Rathore (1986). A new termite Odontotermes sikkimensis (Isoptera: Termitidae: Microtermitinae) from Sikkim, India. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science 17(1): 53-56. 

Thakur, R.K. & S. Kumar (2012).Termite diversity in North Western Himalayan region with new distributional records.Journal of Experimental Zoology15(2): 365-373.

ThakurR.K., S. Kumar& V. Tyagi(2009). Termite fauna of Kumaon, Uttarakhand, (Insecta: Isoptera). Indian Journal of Forestry32(4): 595-600.

Thakur, R.K., V.Tyagi &S. Kumar (2010). Termites from Garhwal Uttarakhand, (Insecta: Isoptera), with new distributional records. Indian Forester, 136(5): 621-634.

Thakur, R.K., V.Tyagi &S. Kumar (2010a).Glyptotermes roonwali, (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). A new species from India.Entomon 35(2): 111-119.

Thakur, R.K., V.Tyagi &S. Kumar (2010b).Neotermes sen-sarmai, A new species from India (Oriental Region) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology 31(1): 101-105.

Thakur, R.K., S.Kumar & V.Tyagi (2011).Macrotermes vikaspurensis: A new species from India. Journal of Experimental Zoology14(2): 667-672.

Verma, S.C. (1980). Termites (Insecta: Isoptera). Cheetal 21(2-3): 45-56. 

Verma, S.C. (1983). A new species of the termite genus Pericapritermes Silvestri (Termitidae: Termitinae) from Kerala, India with distribution and keys to Oriental species of the genus. Indian Journal of Forestry 6(4): 296-301.

Verma, S.C. (1984a). On a collection of termites (Isoptera: Insecta) from Nagaland, Northeast India. Indian Journal of Forestry 7(1): 81-82. 

Verma, S.C. (1984a). Termites from Jammu and Kashmir State (India), with new records, key and remarks on zoogeography. Indian Journal of Forestry 7(4): 305-314. 

Verma, S.C. (1984b). On a collection of termites (Insecta: Isoptera) from Kerala (India) with a new species of and keys to the Indian species of Angulitermes Sjostedt. Records zoological Survey of India 81(3-4): 237-254.

Verma, S.C. (1985). On a collection of termites (Insecta: Isoptera) from Kerala, India with a new species of Pseudocapritermes Kemner (Part II). Indian Journal of Forestry 8(3): 176-183.

Verma, S.C. (1985a). Microcerotermes pakistanicus Akhtar (Termitidae: Amitermitinae) from Kerala, India, with descriptions of hitherto unknown imago and worker caste. Annals of Entomology 3(1): 53-58.

Verma, S.C. (1986). A new species of termite genus Dicuspiditermes Krishna (Termitidae: Termitinae) from Kerala, India with distribution of the known species of the genus. Annals of Entomology 3(2): 7-12.

Verma, S.C. (1989). Termites from Uttar Pradesh Tarai region (India) with a key for identification of species. Indian Journal of Forestry 12(4): 296-301. 

Verma, S.C. & G.L. Purohit (1996).  Additions to the termite (Insecta: Isoptera) fauna of Rajasthan, India. Indian Journal of Forestry 19(3): 237-240.

Verma, S.C. & N. S. Rathore (1995). Termite (Insecta: Isoptera) of Thar Desert. A review.including catalogue of species and keys to soldier caste. Zoology 5(1): 21-34.

Verma, S.C. & R.K. Thakur (1976). New records of termite Odontotermes gurdaspurensis Holmgren and Holmgren (Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science 7(1): 36 - 37. 

Verma, S.C. & R.K. Thakur (1978). A new species of Nasutitermes Banks (Isoptera: Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae) from Corbett National Park, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science 9(1): 50-55. 

Verma, S.C. & R.K. Thakur (1979). Colony foundation by budding in Euhamitermes lighti Snyder (Isoptera: Termitidae: Amitermitinae). Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science 10(2): 88-89. 

Verma, S.C. & R.K. Thakur (1982).Termites from Madhya Pradesh, India, with new distributional records. Records of the zoological Survey of India 79(3-4): 311-318. 

Walker, F. (1853).List of the specimens of Neuropterous insects in the collection of the British Mesuem (Termitidae-Ephermeridae).London, British Museum of Natural History.477-585pp. 

Wasmann, E. (1893). Einige neue Termiten aus Ceylon und Madagaskar, mit Bemerkugen uber deren Gaste. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 12(7): 239-247. 

Wasmann, E. (1894). Kritisches Verzeichnis der myrmekophilen und termitophilen Arthropoden. Mit Angabe der Lebensweise und mit Beschreibung neuer Arten, xvi+231pp.

Wasmann, E. (1896). Die Myrmekophilen und Termitophilen, pp. 410-440. In:  Hoek, P.P.C.  (ed.) Société Néeriandaise de Zoologie. Leyden.

Wasmann, E. (1896a). Neue Termitophilen und Termiten aus Indien.I-III.(Viaggo di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regione vicine. LXXII). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 36(16): 613-630. 

 Wasmann, E. (1896b). Neue Termitophilen und Termiten aus Indien. IV (Nachtrag). (Viaggo di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regione vicine. LXXII). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 17(17): 149-152.

Wasmann, E. (1902). Termitophilen and Myrmekophilen, gesamelt auf Ceylon von Dr. W. Horn, 1899, mit andern ostindischen Material bearbeitet. 129. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Myrmekophilen und der Termitophilen. Zoologische Jahrbuecher Systematik 17(1): 99-164.


Termite Family

Total Number of species

Family I: TERMOPSIDAE Grasse

Archotermopsis Desneux


Archotermopsis wroughtoni (Desneux)



Sub-family: HODOTERMITINAE Desneux

Anacanthotermes Jacobson


Anacanthotermes macrocephalus  (Desneux)

Anacanthotermes viarum (Konig)



Postelectrotermes Krishna


Postelectrotermes bhimi Roonwal and Maiti

Postelectrotermes militaris (Desneux)

Postelectrotermes nayari Roonwal and Verma


Neotermes Holmgren


Neotermes assmuthi Holmgren


Neotermes bosei Snyder


Neotermes buxensis Roonwal and Sen-Sarma


Neotermes dhirendrai Bose


Neotermes eleanorae Bose


Neotermes fletcheri Holmgren and Holmgren


Neotermes kalimpomgensis Maiti


Neotermes keralai Roonwal and Verma


Neotermes krishnai Bose


Neotermes mangiferae Roonwal and Sen-Sarma


Neotermes megaoculatus Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

a.  Neotermes megaoculatus megaoculatus Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

b. Neotermes megaoculatus lakhimpuri Roonwal and Sen-Sarma


Neotermes microculatus Roonwal and Sen-Sarma


Neotermes nilamburensis Thakur


Neotermes paratensis Sen-Sarma and Thakur


Neotermes sen-sarmai Thakur, Tyagi and Kumar


Neotermes shimogensis Thakur


Neotermes venkateshwara Bose


Glyptotermes Froggatt


Glyptotermes almorensis Gardner


Glyptotermes coorgensis Holmgren and Holmgren


Glyptotermes nicobarensis Maiti and Chakraborty


Glyptotermes roonwali Thakur, Tyagi and Kumar


Glyptotermes sensarmai Maiti


Glyptotermes teknafensis Akhtar


Glyptotermes tikaderi Chhotani and Bose


Glyptotennes tripurensis Thakur


Glyptotennes ukhiaensis Akhtar


Calcaritennes Snyder


Calcaritermes krishnai (Maiti and Chakraborty)


Incisitennes Krishna


Incisitermes didwanaensis Roonwal and Verma


Bifiditermes Krishna


Bifiditermes beesoni (Gardner)


Bifiditermes pintoi (Kemner)


Procryptotermes Holmgren


Procryptotermes dhari Roonwal and Chhotani


Procryptotermes hunsurensis Thakur


Procryptotermes valeriae Bose


Cryptotermes Banks


Cryptotermes bengalensis Snyder


Cryptotermes daulti Rathore


Cryptotermes domesticus (Haviland)


Cryptotermes dudleyi Banks


Cryptotermes roonwali Chhotani



Subfamily: PSAMMOTERMITINAE Holmgren

Psammotermes Desneux


Psammotermes rajasthanicus Roonwal and Base


Subfamily: COPTOTERMITINAE Holmgren

Coptotermes Wasmann


Coptotermes beckeri Mathur and Chhotani


Coptotermes ceylonicus Holmgren


Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann


Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann)


Coptotermes kishori Roonwal and Chhotani


Coptotermes travians Haviland


Subfamily: HETEROTERMITINA Froggatt

Heterotermes Froggatt


Heterotermes balwanti Mathur and Chhotani


Heterotermes gertrudae Roonwal


Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann)


Heterotermes malabaricus Snyder


Reticulitermes Holmgren


Reticulitermes assamensis Gardner


Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder


Reticulitermes saraswati Roonwal and Chhotani


Reticulitermes tirapi Chhotani and Das


Subfamily: RHINOTERMITINAE  Froggatt

Prorhinotermes Silvestri


Prorhinotermes flavus (Bugnion and Popoff)


Parrhinotermes Holmgren


Parrhinotermes khasii RoonwaI and Sen-Sarma


Schedorhinotermes Silvestri


Schedorhinotermes eleanorae Roonwal and Bose


Schedorhinotermes longirostris (Brauer)


Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus Holmgren


Schedorhinotermes tiwarii Roonwal and Thakur


Schedorhinotermes translucens (Haviland)


Family V:  STYLOTERMITIDAE Holmgren and Holmgren

Stylotermes Holmgren and Holmgren


Stylotermes beesoni Thakur


Stylotermes bengalensis Mathur and Chhotani


Stylotermes chakratensis Mathur and Thapa


Stylotermes dunensis Thakur


Stylotermes faveolus (Chatterjee and Thakur)


Stylotermes fletcheri Holmgren and Holmgren


Stylotermes parabengalensis Maiti


Family VI:  INDOTERMITIDAE Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

Indotermes Roonwal and Sen-Sarma


Indotermes rongrensis (Roonwal and Chhotani)


Family VII:  TERMITIDAE Westwood

Subfamily: AMITERMITINAE Kemner

Eurytermes Wasmann


Eurytermes assmuthi assmuthi Wasmann


Eurytermes assmuthi modestior Silvestri


Eurytermes boveni Roonwal and Chhotani


Eurytermes buddha Bose and Maiti


Eurytermes mohana Rathore


Eurytermes punjabensis Thakur                         


Eurytermes topslipensis (Chatterjee and Thapa)


Speculitermes Wasmann


Speculitermes chadaensis Chatterjee and Thapa


Speculitermes cyclops Wasmann


Speculitermes deccanensis Roonwal and Chhotani


Speculitermes dharwarensis Roonwal and Chhotani


Speculitermes emersoni Bose


Speculitermes goesswaldi Roonwal and Chhotani


Speculitermes paivai Roonwal and Chhotani


Speculitermes roonwali Maiti


Speculitermes sinhalensis Roonwal and Sen-Sarma


Speculitermes triangularis Roonwal and Sen-Sarma


Euhamitermes Holmgren


Euhamitermes aruna Chhotani


Euhamitermes chhotanii Maiti


Euhamitermes dentatus Thakur and Chatterjee


Euhamitehmes indicus Holmgren and Holmgren


Euhamitermes khanhaensis Roonwal and Chhotani


Euhamitehmes karnatakensis Roonwal and Chhotani


Euhamitermes lighti Snyder


Synhamitermes Holmgren


Synhamitermes labioangulatus Thakur


Synhamitermes quadriceps Wasmann


Amitermes Silvestri


Amitermes belli (Desneux)


Eremotermes Silvestri


Eremotermes dehraduni Roonwal and Sen-Sarma


Eremotermes fletcheri Holmgren and Holmgren


Eremotermes madrasicus Roonwal and Sen-Sarma


Eremotermes neoparadoxalis Ahmad


Eremotermes paradoxalis Holmgren


Eremotermes sanyuktae Thakur


Microcerotermes Silvestri


Microcerotermes annandalei Silvestri


Microcerotermes s baluchistanicus Ahmad


Microcerotermes beesoni Snyder


Microcerotermes cameroni Snyder


Microcerotermes crassus Snyder


Microcerotermes danieli Roonwal and Bose


Microcerotermes dumasensis Thakur


Microcerotermes fletcheri Holmgren and Holmgren


Microcerotermes ganeshi Bose


Microcerotermes heimi Wasmann


Microcerotermes kudermukhae Chhotani


Microcerotermes labioangulatus Sen-Sarma and Thakur


Microcerotermes laxmi Roonwal and Bose


Microcerotermes minor Holmgren


Microcerotermes nicobarernsis Roonwal and Bose


Microcerotermes pakistanicus Akhtar


Microcerotermes palestinensis Spaeth


Microcerotermes raja Roonwal and Bose


Microcerotermes rambanensis Chatterjee and Thakur


Microcerotermes tenuignathus Holmgren


Subfamily: TERMITINAE Sjostedt

Angulitermes Sjostedt


Angulitermes acutus Mathur and Sen-Sarma


Angulitermes akhorisainensis Chatterjee and Thakur


Angulitermes bhagsunagensis Thakur


Anguliterrnes dehraensis (Gardner)


Angulitermes fletcheri (Holmgren and Holmgren)


Angulitermes jodhpurensis Roonwal and Verma


Angulitermes kashmirensis Roonwal and Chhotani


Angulitermes keralai Verma


Angulitermes longifrons Maiti


Angulitermes mishrai Sen-Sarma and Thakur


Angulitermes obtusus(Holmgrenand Holrngren)


Angulitermes ramanii Bose and Das


Angulitermes rathorai Kumar and Thakur


Angulitermes tilaki Roonwal and Chhotani


Homallotermes John


Homallotermes pilosus (Mathur and Thapa)


Dicuspiditermes Krishna


Dicuspiditermes achankovili Verma


Dicuspiditermes boseae Chhotani


Dicuspiditermes cornutella (Silvestri)


Dicuspiditermes fontanellus Thakur and Chatterjee


Dicuspiditermes gravelyi (Silvestri)


Dicuspiditermes incola (Wasmann)


Dicuspiditermes laetus (Silvestri)


Dicuspiditermes obtusus (Silvestri)


Dicuspiditermes sisiri Chhotani


Pericapritermes Silvestri


Pericapritermes assameneis (Mathur and Thapa)


Pericapritermes chhichruliensis Thakur


Pericapritermes dunensis (Roonwal and Sen-Sarma)


Pericapritermes durga (Roonwal and Chhotani)


Pericapritermes tetraphilus (Silvestri)


Pericapritermes topslipensis Thakur


Pericapritermes vermai Kumar and Thakur


Indocapritermes Chhotani


Indocapritermes aruni Chhotani


Krishnacapritermes Chhotani


Krishnacapritermes maitii  Chhotani


Krishnacapritermes thakuri Chhotani


Labiocapritermes Krishna


Labiocapritermes distortus (Silvestri)


Malaysiocapritermes Ahmad and Akhtar


Malaysiocapritermes dakshinae Chhotani and Ferry


Malaysiocapritermes holmgreni (Akhtar)


Malaysiocapritermes keralae Chhotani and Ferry


Pseudocapritermes Kemner


Pseudocapritermes fletcheri (Holmgren and Holmgren)


Pseudocapritermes karticki Bose


Pseudocapritermes tikadari Roonwal and Chhotani



Macrotermes Holmgren


Macrotermes aleemi Akhtar


Macrotermes convulsionarius (Konig)


Macrotermes hopini Roonwal and Sen-Sarma


Macrotermes khajuriai Roonwal and Chhotani


Macrotermes serrulatus Snyder


Macrotermes vikaspurensis Thakur, Kumar and Tyagi


Odontotermes Holmgren


Odontotermes adampurensis Akhtar


Odontotermes anamallensis Holmgren and Holmgren


Odontotermes assmuthi Holmgren


Odontotermes bellahunisensis Holmgren and Holmgren


Odontotermes bhagwatii Chatterjee and Thakur


Odontotermes boveni Thakur


Odontotermes brunneus (Hagen)


Odontotermes ceylonicus (Wasmann)


Odontotermes distans Holmgren and Holmgren


Odontotermes feae (Wasmann)


Odontotermes feaeoides Holmgren and Holmgren


Odontotermes ganpati Bose


Odontotermes giriensis Roonwal and Chhotani


Odontotermes girnarensisThakur


Odontotermes globicola (Wasmann)


Odontotermes guptai Roonwal and Bose


Odontotermes gurdaspurensis Holmgren and Holmgren


Odontotermes horai Roonwal and Chhotani


Odontotermes horni (Wasrnann)


Odontotermes indicus Thakur


Odontotermes kapuri Roonwal and Chhotani


Odontotermes kulkarnii Roonwal and Chhotani


Odontotermes latigula (Snyder)


Odontotermes latiguloides Roonwal and Verma


Odontotermes microdentatus Roonwal and Sen-Sarma


Odontotermes mirganjensis Holmgren and Holmgren


Odontotermes obesus (Rambur)


Odontotermes paralatigula Chatterjee and Sen-Sarma


Odontotermes paralatiguloides Thakur


Odontotermes parvidens Holmgren and Holmgren


Odontotennes proformosanus Ahmad


Odontotermes prolatigula Bose


Odontotermes redemanni (Wasmann)


Odontotermes sasangirensis Thakur


Odontotermes singsiti Bose


Odontotermes vaishno Bose


Odontotermes wallonensis (Wasmann)


Odontotermes yadevi Thakur


Hypotermes Holmgren


Hypotermes obscuriceps (Wasmann)


Hypotermes xenotermitis (Wasmann)


Euscaiotermes Silvestri


Euscaiotermes primus Silvestri


Microtermes Wasmann


Microtermes bharatpurensis Rathore


Microtermes imphalensis Roonwal and Chhotani


Microtermes incertoides Holmgren


Microtermes mycophagus Desneux


Microtermes obesi Holmgren


Microtermes unicolor Snyder


Ancistrotermes Silvestri


Ancistrotermes pakistanicus (Ahmad)



Nasutitermes Dudley


Nasutitermes anamalaiensis Snyder


Nasutitermes brunneus Snyder


Nasutitermes cherraensis Roonwal and Chhotani


Nasutitermes chhotanii Bose


Nasutitermes crassicornis (Holmgren and Holmgren)


Nasutitermes dunensis Chatterjee and Thakur


Nasutitermes emersoni Snyder


Nasutitermes fabricii Krishna


Nasutitermes fletcheri (Holmgren and Holmgren)


Nasutitermes gardneri Snyder


Nasutitermes garoensis Roonwal and Chhotani


Nasutitermes indicola(Holmgren and Holmgren)


Nasutitermes jalpaigurensis Prashad and Sen-Sarma


Nasutitermes kali Roonwal and Chhotani


Nasutitermes krishna Bose


Nasutitermes matangensiformis (Holmgren)


Nasutitermes moratus (Silvestri)


Nasutitermes saharanpurensis  Thakur


Nasutitermes suknensis Prashad and Sen-Sarma


Nasutitermes tandoni Bose


Nasutitermes thanensis Prashad and Sen-Sarma


Nasutitermes triloki Bose


Nasutitermes vishnu Bose


Bulbitermes Emerson


Bulbitermes parapusillus Ahmad


Ahmaditermes Akhtar


Ahmaditermes emersoni (Maiti)


Ceylonitermes Holmgren


Ceylonitermes indicola Thakur


Ampoulitermes Mathur and Thapa


Ampoulitermes wynaadensis Mathur and Thapa


Hospitalitermes Holmgren


Hospitalitermes blairi Roonwal and Sen-Sarma


Hospitalitermes jepsoni Snyder


Hospitalitermes madrasi Snyder


Trinervitermes Holmgren


Trinervitermes biformis (Wasmann)


Trinervitermes fletcheri Chatterjee and Thakur


Trinervitermes indicus Snyder


Trineruitermes nigrirostris Mathur and Sen-Sarma


Trineruitermes sensarmai Bose


Roonwalitermes Bose


Roonwalitermes wadhwai Bose


Grallatotermes Holmgren


Grallatotermes grallatoriformis Holmgren and Holmgren


Grallatotermes niger Chatterjee and Thapa


Emersonitermes Mathur and Sen-Sarma


Emersonitermes thekadensis Mathur and Sen-Sarma


Total termite species




  • Termopsidae: One genus and one species
  • Hodotermitidae: One genus and two species
  • Kalotermitidae: Eight genera and forty species
  • Rhinotermitidae: Seven genera and twenty two species
  • Stylotermitidae: One genus and seven species
  • Indotermitidae: One genus and one species
  • Termitidae: Thirty two genera and one hundred and eighty eight species

Last Updated: 27-03-2024

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